Lemon balm

Common name: Lemon balm
Other names: Balm, bee balm, melissa, sweet balm, cure-all
Latin name: Melissa officinalis
Affinities: Nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system
Actions: Carminative, antispasmodic, antidepressant, diaphoretic, hypotensive, nootropic
Diseases: Anxiety(1), depression(1), hypertension(3), digestive spasms(3), flatulent dyspepsia(3), insomnia(3), seasonal affective disorder(2), Alzheimer’s disease(3), ADHD(2), ADD(2)
Parts used: Aerial parts
Energetics: Cooling, drying

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Characteristics: Lemon balm is a member of the family Lamiaceae and grows widely in central and southern Europe and in Asia minor; however, it is cultivated throughout the world because of its culinary properties (Dastmalchi et al., 2008). Bees love lemon balm and the genus name, Melissa, is Greek for ‘bee’ (Castleman, 2001). In Iran, lemon balm is known by the names Badranjbooye, Varangboo and Faranjmoshk and is found in the north, north-west, and western regions of the country (Dastmalchi et al., 2008).

History: The ancient Greek physician, Dioscorides, applied lemon balm to skin wounds and the herb to wine in order to treat various ailments (Castleman, 2001). The Roman physician, Pliny, recommended lemon balm to stop bleeding. 10th century Arab doctors used lemon balm for nervousness and anxiety. The 11th century Arab physician, Avicenna, wrote, ‘Balm causeth the mind and heart to become merry’. Medieval Europeans adopted the herb for anxiety and it became very popular.

During the middle ages the uses of lemon balm were expanded by herbalists to include, insomnia, arthritis, sores, digestive problems, cramps, and menstrual problems. They recommended it for so many ailments, lemon balm was considered of something of a cure all. The 17th century herbalist, Nicholas Culpeper recommended the herb for anxiety, depresson, to help digestion, ‘open obstructions of the brain…(and) procure women’s courses’. North American colonists used it to relive menstrual cramps and for fever, although North American popularity of lemon balm never reached that of Europe and parts of Asia.

Current applications: David Hoffman in his book, ‘Holistic Herbal’, states that lemon balm is ‘an excellent carminative herb….(with) anti-depressive properties’ (Hoffman, 1988). Therefore, it relieves spasms in the digestive system, flatulent dyspepsia, anxiety, depression, and high blood pressure. He recommends for digestive problems, it be combined with hops, chamomile, and meadowsweet. For stress, he recommends it is combined with lavender and lime blossom.

David Winston uses lemon balm in combination with St. John’s wort for seasonal affective disorder (Winston, 2007). He also recommends it to enhance cognitive function, relive symptoms of Alzheimer’s (irritability and forgetfulness), nervous stomach, improving sleep, and ADHD.

Science: Lemon balm extracts have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Dastmalchi et al., 2008; Lin et al., 2012). Lemon balm has been found to relive stress and improve cognitive performance in small, but well controlled, human clinical studies (Kennedy et al., 2004; Kennedy et al., 2006). Although larger well controlled studies are needed to evaluate lemon balm’s medicinal performance, these results agree well with the traditional indications of the herb.

Safety: Lemon balm is highly safe and may be taken by women breastfeeding and pregnant. It is appropriate for use in the young and old.

Dosage: Dose of tincture is 5-60 drops 3-4 times daily.

Form: The fresh tincture is preferred in this case.

Scientific Summary

Research on models

Anti-oxidant activity: One study found lemon balm ethanolic extracts had anti-oxidant activity ex vivo (Dastmalchi et al., 2008).

Anti-inflammatory activity: A study found that lemon balm ethanolic extracts has anti-inflammatory activity and inhibited the COX-2 pathway in an ex vivo study (Lin et al., 2012).

Research on humans

Stress: One study (n = 18, double blind randomised placebo controlled) found that a 600mg dose of lemon balm ameliorated negative mood and there were significant improvements in calmness and alertness in healthy persons (Kennedy et al., 2004). A significant increase in the speed of mathematical processing was observed.

Stress(II): In another study (n = 24, double blind randomised placebo controlled) the authors found that a 600mg dose of valerian and lemon balm combined could relieve stress in healthy individuals (Kennedy et al., 2006).

References:

Castleman, Michael. “The new healing herbs.” Bantam Book, New York (2001): 465-471.

Dastmalchi, Keyvan, et al. “Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative activity of a lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) extract.” LWT-Food Science and Technology 41.3 (2008): 391-400.

Hoffman, David. Holistic herbal. Element Books, 1988.

Kennedy, David O., et al. “Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa ofcinalis and Valeriana ofcinalis during laboratory induced stress.” Phytotherapy research 20.2 (2006): 96-102.

Kennedy, David O., Wendy Little, and Andrew B. Scholey. “Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm).” Psychosomatic medicine 66.4 (2004): 607-613.

Lin, Jau-Tien, et al. “Antioxidant, anti-proliferative and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activities of ethanolic extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves.” LWT-Food Science and Technology 49.1 (2012): 1-7.

Winston, David, and Steven Maimes. Adaptogens: herbs for strength, stamina, and stress relief. Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2007.