I have been interested a lot recently in restoration of the nervous system with natural methods. Nerve related diseases range from painful conditions such as various types of neuropathy to cognitive disorders, like Alzhemers and dementia. These conditions fall under the umbrella of ‘nerve damage’. I will now describe my top 5 regenerative herbs for the nervous system in more detail referring to both traditional and scientific knowledge.

1. Ashwagandha

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Ashwagandha is classified as a rasayana herb in Ayurvedic medicine, this means it has rejuvenating qualities that increase life-span, improve overall health, and fight disease (Ven Murthy et al., 2010). Ashwagandha is considering an adaptogen, a term that refers to a nontoxic medication that normalises various functions perturbed by body stress. It is hypothesised to do this by correction of imbalances in the neuroendocrine and immune system. The winanosides are thought to be the primary active compounds of ashwagandha and are found in the root. Alzheimer’s disease is hypothesised to be caused by deposition of amyloid β-peptide in plaques in human brain tissue (Hardy et al., 2002). In one notable study, the authors found that an ashwagandha root extract was capable of reversing amyloid induced toxicity in human neuronal cells (Kurapati et al., 2013), therefore supporting the potential for this herb to be a treatment for Alzheimer’s. Ashwagandha also has anti-oxidant properties (Bhattacharya et al., 2001), and oxidative stress is associated with neurodegeneration (Federico et al., 2012). Another interesting study, in an animal model, found a withanoside from ashwagandha increased regeneration of a damaged nerves after injury (Nakayama et al., 2007). In summary, these studies point to the value of ashwagandha in restoring the health of the nervous system.

2. Gotu kola

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Gotu kola, similar to ashwagandha, is classified as a rasayana herb in Ayurveda. Originally it was used by local people in Sri Lanka as a tonic herb for longevity (Castleman, 2001). It was incorporated into both traditional Indian and Chinese medicine for longevity and to treat cognitive problems. Impaired anti-oxidant mechanisms have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (Markesbery, 1997). More recently, in animal models, it has shown to have anti-oxidant activities in the brain and to exert a protective effect against cognitive problems (Kumar et al., 2003). Another study found both in cellular ex vivo and in vivo animal models that gotu kola facilitated axon regrowth and remyelination after damage (Soumyanath et al., 2005). Although these were animal or cellular studies they point to the medicinal potential of gotu kola to restore a damaged nervous system alongside the traditional application of the herb.

3. Ginkgo

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Ginkgo is a giant tree which grows up to 125-foot-tall and lives up to 1000 years (Castleman, 2001). It is a relic of a lost era and has survived since the Jurassic period, when the dinosaurs ruled the world, 170 million years ago (Zhou et al., 2003). Ginkgo otherwise known as the maidenhair tree has changed very little morphologically over 170 million years. It has long been used in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine and Ayuvedic physicians viewed it as a tonic for longevity (Castleman, 2001). Ginkgo is another anti-oxidant herb (Bridi et al., 2001). It has convincing support in human studies to reduce the severity of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia (Le Bars et al., 1997). A study using experimental models, found that ginkgo extracts enhanced axonal extension in Schwann cells and promoted peripheral nerve functional recovery (Hsu et al., 2004). Like ashwagandha and gotu kola, ginkgo is another herb with great potential to restore the nervous system.

4. Bacopa

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Bacopa is classified as a ‘medhya rasayana’ in Ayurveda, a rasayana medicine specifically for the mind and nervous system (Russo et al., 2005). Bacopa can be found in the Caraka Samhita a text from the 6th century A.D. In this key text, it is recommended to treat cognitive problems. Bacopa has been found to have anti-oxidant activities in the rat brain (Bhattacharya et al., 2000). Well conducted human clinical studies support Bacopa as having cognitive boosting effects (Roodenrys et al., 2002). Bacopa has been shown to inhibit acrylamide (a toxic chemical) induced neuropathy in drosophila likely via raising anti-oxidant levels (Kunnel et al., 2013). Another study found that an extract of bacopa could reduce neuropathic pain in rats (Sahoo et al., 2010). These studies underscore the potential for bacopa to heal damaged nerves and support its traditional role as a ‘medhya rasayana’.

5. St. John’s wort

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St. John’s wort’s importance in herbalism can be traced back to the ancient Greeks (Castleman, 2001). The famous Greek physician Dioscorides recommended it for sciatica, a nerve related problem. St. John’s wort has anti-oxidant abilities (Zou et al., 2004), which may be related to its health promoting effects on the nervous system. A well conducted human study on neuropathy found, although the effects were not quite statistically significant, that it seemed to reduce pain with patients suffering from polyneuropathy (Sindrup et al., 2001). This implies that if repeated with a higher patient number and a higher dosage the effects would be more noticeable. In another study using animal models, it was found that St. John’s wort reduced neuropathic pain (Galeotti et al., 2010), thus supporting the traditional use of the herb and the human study in 2001. St. John’s wort also has anti-depressant activity and these classes of medicines are linked to reducing neuropathic pain (Saarto et al., 2007). Overall, St. John’s wort appears to be a potent tonic for the nervous system and worthy of much further study.

Summary

Ashwagandha, bacopa, gotu kola, ginkgo, and St. John’s wort are some of the most potent tonics for the nervous system we have in herbalism. David Winston has used St. John’s wort with bacopa, ginkgo, and holy basil for brain injury with remarkable success (Groves, 2016). In treating complex difficult nerve related conditions a combination formula seems best. For more detail on constructing a formula, I would refer you to an excellent book by Maria Groves called ‘Body into Balance’. Also, each of these herbs has a specific entry in my herbal encyclopedia.

References:

Bhattacharya, A., S. Ghosal, and S. K. Bhattacharya. “Anti-oxidant effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides in chronic footshock stress-induced perturbations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex and striatum.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74.1 (2001): 1-6.

Bhattacharya, S. K., et al. “Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus.” Phytotherapy Research 14.3 (2000): 174-179.

Bridi, R., et al. “The antioxidant activity of standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in rats.” Phytotherapy Research 15.5 (2001): 449-451.

Castleman, Michael. “The new healing herbs.” Bantam Book, New York (2001): 465-471.

Federico, Antonio, et al. “Mitochondria, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.” Journal of the neurological sciences 322.1 (2012): 254-262.

Galeotti, Nicoletta, et al. “St. John’s Wort reduces neuropathic pain through a hypericin-mediated inhibition of the protein kinase C γ and ɛ activity.” Biochemical pharmacology 79.9 (2010): 1327-1336.

Groves, Maria. Body into Balance. Storey Publishing, 2016.

Hardy, John, and Dennis J. Selkoe. “The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics.” science 297.5580 (2002): 353-356.

Hsu, Shan-Hui, et al. “In vitro and in vivo effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on seeded Schwann cells within poly (DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.” Journal of biomaterials applications 19.2 (2004): 163-182.

Kunnel Shinomol, George, Narayanareddy Raghunath, and Muchukunte Mukunda , Srinivas Bharath. “Prophylaxis with Bacopa monnieri attenuates acrylamide induced neurotoxicity and oxidative damage via elevated antioxidant function.” Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Central Nervous System Agents) 13.1 (2013): 3-12.

Kurapati, Kesava Rao Venkata, et al. “Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) reverses β-amyloid 1-42 induced toxicity in human neuronal cells: implications in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).” PLoS One 8.10 (2013): e77624.

Le Bars, Pierre L., et al. “A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia.” Jama 278.16 (1997): 1327-1332.

Markesbery, William R. “Oxidative stress hypothesis in Alzheimer’s disease.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 23.1 (1997): 134-147.

Nakayama, Natsuki, and Chihiro Tohda. “Withanoside IV improves hindlimb function by facilitating axonal growth and increase in peripheral nervous system myelin level after spinal cord injury.” Neuroscience research 58.2 (2007): 176-182.

Roodenrys, Steven, et al. “Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory.” Neuropsychopharmacology 27.2 (2002): 279-281.

Russo, A., and F. Borrelli. “Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview.” Phytomedicine 12.4 (2005): 305-317.

Saarto, Tiina, and Philip J. Wiffen. “Antidepressants for neuropathic pain.” The Cochrane Library (2007).

Sahoo, P. K., D. Pradhan, and P. Behera. “Effect of B. monnieri leaf extract targeted at adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathic pain.” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1.2 (2010).

Sindrup, Søren H., et al. “St. John’s wort has no effect on pain in polyneuropathy.” Pain 91.3 (2001): 361-365.

Soumyanath, Amala, et al. “Centella asiatica accelerates nerve regeneration upon oral administration and contains multiple active fractions increasing neurite elongation in‐vitro.” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 57.9 (2005): 1221-1229.

Veerendra Kumar, M. H., and Y. K. Gupta. “Effect of Centella asiatica on cognition and oxidative stress in an intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of Alzheimer’s disease in rats.” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 30.5‐6 (2003): 336-342.

Ven Murthy, M. R., et al. “Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: 1. Ashwagandha.” Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Central Nervous System Agents) 10.3 (2010): 238-246.

Zhou, Zhiyan, and Shaolin Zheng. “Palaeobiology: The missing link in Ginkgo evolution.” Nature 423.6942 (2003): 821-822.

Zou, Yanping, Yanhua Lu, and Dongzhi Wei. “Antioxidant activity of a flavonoid-rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52.16 (2004): 5032-5039.